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That development, in turn, could make it more difficult during downturns for monetary policy to support household spending, business investment, and employment, and keep inflation from falling too low. Another key development in recent decades is that inflation appears less responsive to resource slack. That is, the short-run Phillips curve appears to have flattened, implying a change in the dynamic relationship between inflation and employment. Thus, a flatter Phillips curve makes it all the more important that longer-run inflation expectations remain anchored at levels consistent with our 2 percent inflation objective.

Finally, the strengthening of the labor market in recent years has highlighted the challenges of assessing the proximity of the labor market to the full employment leg of the Federal Reserve's dual mandate. The unemployment rate, which stood at 3. However, the level of the unemployment rate that is consistent with full employment is not directly observable and thus must be estimated.

The range of plausible estimates likely extends at least as low as the current level of the unemployment rate. For example, in the February Blue Chip economic outlook survey, the average estimate of the natural rate of unemployment for the bottom 10 respondents was 3.


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The decline in the unemployment rate in recent years has been accompanied by an increase in labor force participation, with especially pronounced gains for individuals in their prime working years. As with the unemployment rate, whether participation will continue to increase in a tight labor market remains uncertain. The strong job gains of recent years also has delivered benefits to groups that have historically been disadvantaged in the labor market. For example, African Americans and Hispanics have experienced persistently higher unemployment rates than whites for many decades.

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The statement indicates that the Committee seeks to mitigate deviations of inflation from 2 percent and deviations of employment from assessments of its maximum level. In doing so, the FOMC recognizes that these assessments of maximum employment are necessarily uncertain and subject to revision.

18. Monetary Policy

According to the Federal Reserve Act, the employment objective is on an equal footing with the inflation objective. As a practical matter, our current strategy shares many elements with the policy framework known in the research literature as "flexible inflation targeting. We believe this transparency about the balanced approach the FOMC takes has served us well over the past decade when high unemployment called for extraordinary policies that entailed some risk of inflation. The review of our current framework will be wide ranging, and we will not prejudge where it will take us, but events of the past decade highlight three broad questions.

10. From the RPI to the CPI: 1990–2011

Three Questions The first question is, "Can the Federal Reserve best meet its statutory objectives with its existing monetary policy strategy, or should it consider strategies that aim to reverse past misses of the inflation objective? Under our current approach as well as that of many central banks around the world, the persistent shortfalls of inflation from 2 percent that many advanced economies have experienced over most of the past decade are treated as "bygones.

Central banks are generally believed to have effective tools for preventing persistent inflation overshoots, but the effective lower bound on interest rates makes persistent undershoots more likely. Persistent inflation shortfalls carry the risk that longer-term inflation expectations become poorly anchored or become anchored below the stated inflation goal. In part because of that concern, some economists have advocated "makeup" strategies under which policymakers seek to undo, in part or in whole, past inflation deviations from target.

Such strategies include targeting average inflation over a multiyear period and price-level targeting, in which policymakers seek to stabilize the price level around a constant growth path. For example, the central bank could commit, at the time when the policy rate reaches the ELB, to maintain the policy rate at this level until inflation over the ELB period has, on average, run at the target rate. The benefits of the makeup strategies rest heavily on households and firms believing in advance that the makeup will, in fact, be delivered when the time comes--for example, that a persistent inflation shortfall will be met by future inflation above 2 percent.

As is well known from the research literature, makeup strategies, in general, are not time consistent because when the time comes to push inflation above 2 percent, conditions at that time will not warrant doing so.

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Because of this time inconsistency, the public would have to see a makeup strategy as a credible commitment for it to be successful. That important real-world consideration is often neglected in the academic literature, in which central bank "commitment devices" are simply assumed to exist and be instantly credible on decree.

Inflation Models and Forecasts

Thus, one of the most challenging questions is whether central banks could, in practice, attain the benefits of makeup strategies that are possible in models. The next question the review will consider is, "Are the existing monetary policy tools adequate to achieve and maintain maximum employment and price stability, or should the toolkit be expanded? And, if so, how? In the fall of , the FOMC cut that target to just above zero in response to financial turmoil and deteriorating economic conditions.

Because the U. The FOMC altered the size and composition of the Fed's balance sheet through a sequence of three large-scale securities purchase programs, via a maturity extension program, and by adjusting the reinvestment of principal payments on maturing securities. With regard to forward guidance, the FOMC initially made "calendar based" statements, and, later on, it issued "outcome based" guidance.

Overall, the empirical evidence suggests that these added tools helped stem the crisis and support economic recovery by strengthening the labor market and lifting inflation back toward 2 percent. That said, estimates of the effects of these unconventional policies range widely.

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In addition to assessing the efficacy of these existing tools, we will examine additional tools to ease policy when the ELB is binding. During the crisis and its aftermath, the Federal Reserve considered but ultimately found some of the tools deployed by foreign central banks wanting relative to the alternatives it did pursue. But the review will reassess our earlier findings in light of more recent experience in other countries. The third question the review will consider is, "How can the FOMC's communication of its policy framework and implementation be improved?

Over the past decade or so, the FOMC has enhanced its communication practices to promote public understanding of its policy goals, strategy, and actions, as well as to foster democratic accountability. These enhancements include the Statement on Longer-Run Goals and Monetary Policy Strategy; postmeeting press conferences; various statements about principles and strategy guiding the Committee's normalization of monetary policy; and quarterly summaries of individual FOMC participants' economic projections, assessments about the appropriate path of the federal funds rate, and judgments of the uncertainty and balance of risks around their projections.

As part of the review, we will assess the Committee's current and past communications and additional forms of communication that could be helpful. For example, there might be ways to improve communication about the coordination of policy tools or the interplay between monetary policy and financial stability. Activities and Timeline for the Review The review will have several components.

Several more Fed Listens events will follow in May. In addition, we are holding a System research conference on June , , at the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, with speakers and panelists from outside the Fed. The program includes overviews by academic experts of themes that are central to the review: the FOMC's monetary policy since the financial crisis, assessments of the maximum sustainable level of employment, alternative policy frameworks and strategies to achieve the dual mandate, policy tools, global considerations, financial stability considerations, and central bank communications.

Two sessions will feature panels of community leaders who will share their perspectives on the labor market and the effects of interest rates on their constituencies.

Inflation Targeters: Emerging Market Countries vs. Industrial Countries

We expect to release summaries of the Fed Listens events and to livestream the Chicago conference. Building on the perspectives we hear and on staff analysis, the FOMC will conduct its own assessment of its monetary policy framework, beginning around the middle of the year. We will share our conclusions with the public in the first half Concluding Thoughts The economy is constantly evolving, bringing with it new policy challenges.

So it makes sense for us to remain open minded as we assess current practices and consider ideas that could potentially enhance our ability to deliver on the goals the Congress has assigned us. For this reason, my colleagues and I do not want to preempt or to predict our ultimate finding. What I can say is that any refinements or more material changes to our framework that we might make will be aimed solely at enhancing our ability to achieve and sustain our dual-mandate objectives in the world we live in today.

References Aaronson, Stephanie R. Daly, William Wascher, and David W. Wilcox Adam, Klaus, and Roberto M. Billi Bank for International Settlements Bauer, Michael D. Rudebusch Baumeister, Christiane, and Luca Benati Berg, Claes, and Lars Jonung Bernanke, Ben S. Washington: International Monetary Fund, November. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System a.

Monetary Policy Report. Washington: Board of Governors, February. Washington: Board of Governors, July. Boivin, Jean, and Marc P.

Giannoni Boivin, Jean, Michael T. Kiley, and Frederic S. Mishkin Friedman and Michael Woodford, eds. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. Frankfurt: European Central Bank, December. Bullard, James Campbell, Jeffrey R. Evans, Jonas D. Fisher, and Alejandro Justiniano Fisher, Alejandro Justiniano, and Leonardo Melosi Parker, eds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. Cecchetti, Stephen G.